Egyptian Empire

Capital: Alexandria

Government: Hereditary Monarchy with a counsel of Lords and Nomarchs.

Population: 11,127,770

Religions: Polytheism (75%), Judaism (10%), Christianity (5%), Islam (5%), Other (5%)

Allies: Persian Empire

Enemies: Crusader States and the Byzantine Empire

Neutral: Abbasid Sultanate

History: The Egyptian Empire’s foundation is unknown, but most speculate it occurred around 3,100 BCE. The history itself is divided by scholars into the Early Dynastic Period, the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, the New Kingdom, Late New Kingdom, Classical Antiquity, and the Middle Ages.

The Early Dynastic period lasted from 3,100 BCE to 2,686 BCE, and is most notable for the advances in technology from Stone Age to Early Bronze Age, as well as the unification of the Nile Kingdoms by the first Pharaoh, Menes.

The Old Kingdom period lasted 2,686 BCE to 2,181 BCE, and is most notable for the formation of the Nomarchy and the construction of the Pyramids.

The Middle Kingdom period lasted from 2,181 BCE to 1550 BCE. This period began with a civil war between Lower (Northern) Egypt and Upper (Southern) Egypt. The Civil War was concluded with Upper Kingdom re-uniting Egypt once more. However, in 1650 BCE, Lower Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos, causing the nation to be divided once more.

The New Kingdom period lasted from 1550 BCE to 1077 BCE. This period began in 1550 BCE with the Egyptians overthrowing the Hyksos invaders. Most of the famous pharaohs originate during this period, which was marked with great expansion into Northern Sudan, Judea, Israel, Lebanon, and parts of the Sudan.

The Late New Kingdom Period lasted from 1077 BCE to 664 BCE. This period is marked by the rise of the Nubian Pharaohs. The Nubian Pharaohs in Lower Egypt were eventually overthrown by the Assyrians in 664 BCE. However, the Assyrians were unable to conquer Upper Egypt.

The Classical Antiquity Period lasted 664 BCE to 476 CE. During this period, Lower Egypt was conquered twice; First by the Persians in  525 BCE and then by Alexander the Great  in 332 BCE. Upper Egypt began to consolidate its power and replaced the Nubian Pharaohs. In Lower Egypt, the Ptolemaic Dynasty was in control until the Civil War between Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII. Cleopatra was forced to flee to Upper Egypt, where she requested their military support. In 48 BCE, with the help of Upper Egypt and Rome, Cleopatra VII took control of Lower Egypt. Egypt was again united under Cleopatra VII when she married the Pharaoh of Upper Egypt. However, that was short lived, as her husband drowned while bathing. When Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony went to war with Rome in 34 BCE, Egypt erupted in a Civil War again. The Civil War ended in 30 BCE, when Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony were captured, and the new Pharaoh sued for peace, handing Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony over to Caesar Octavian in a grand ceremony at Alexandria. Egypt entered into an uneasy peace with Rome, and eventually both Rome and Byzantium, until 476 CE.

The Middle Ages lasted from 476 CE to 1517 CE and began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Egypt did not begin their next period of expansion until 610 CE, when the Byzantines were embroiled in a war with the Persian Empire. During this period, the Egyptians were able to recapture most of the territory lost during the Late New Kingdom Period; Lebanon, Judea, Israel, and parts of Syria. However, Lebanon and Syria were later conquered in 1172 CE by the Arabian Caliphates. Between 1096 CE and 1303 CE, Egypt and the Crusaders traded ownership of Israel and Judea, until it was finally conquered by the Arabian Caliphates in 1304 CE. Between 1304CE and 1517 CE, the territory of the Egyptian Empire shrank to the Sinai Peninsula from Ottoman Invasions.